This book mentions the 314th Infantry many times:|
- Page 45: May 26 . Transport Princess Matoika reaches New York with first units of 79th Division -- 314th Infantryr;
304th Field Signal Battalion and 154th Artillery Brigade Headquarters. Transport Tiger arrives in New York with 310th Field Artillery.
Transport Virginian arrives at Newport News, Va., with 312th Field Artillery and 311th Machine Gun Battalion;
met by representatives of Philadelphia Welcome Home Committee.
- Pages 68-69: Hon. Norris S. Barratt, President Judge of Court of Common Pleas No. 2, called the attention of the committee to the fact
that the men in the 314th Infantry, an all-Philadelphia regiment at Camp Meade, were without gloves and other necessary woolen clothing.
The committee visited Camp Meade and learned that many Philadelphians were in the 314th and 315th Infantries; 312th Field Artillery and
304th Engineers. The officers of these regiments stated to the committee that the men were in need of woolen clothing,
such as sweaters, gloves, helmets, wristlets and stockings. Immediately after the visit of the committee to Camp Meade
bids were received and contracts made for the articles mentioned, and as soon as the same were delivered to the conmiittee,
they were sent by special messengers to the men at Camp Meade. Many other soldiers who made application for these
articles were also supplied. The winter of 1917-1918 was the most severe in twenty-five years, and sweaters, helmets, socks, wristlets, etc.,
were given away at various camps to the Philadelphia men. Many pairs of woolen stockings were donated to the committee by
the Home Defense Connnitlee for distribution, and woolen wristlets in vast numbers were knitted by the ladies of a church in Bridesburg of which
Rev. August Piscator, 3391 Frankford Avenue, is the pastor.
- Pages 136-137: Following the plan to organize along geograpliical lines, the bulk of the Philadelphians were assigned to the 312th Artillery and the 315th Infantry.
This latter unit from then on became known as "Philadelphia's Own."
Many from this city also went to the 314th Infantry, the 304th Engineers, the 30lth Trench Mortar Battery, and the 312th Field Artillery.
Others were scattered through practically all organizations.
The accompanying table shows the predominating personnel along geographical lines:
|79th Headquarters Troup||Area at large|
|310th Machine Gun Battalion||Eastern Pennsylvania|
|313th Infantry||Baltimore and vicinity|
|314th Infantry||Pennsylvania anthracite region|
|3llth Maching Gun Battalion||Eastern Pennsylvania|
|316th Infantry||Rural Eastern Pennsylvania|
|312th Machine Gun Battalion||District of Columbia|
|304th Engineers||Philadelphia and Central Pennsyvania|
|310th Artillery||Eastern Pennsylvania and Maryland|
|311th Artillery||Pennsylvania anthracite region|
|304th Train Headquarters||Eastern Pennsylvania|
|304th Supply Train||Maryland and Eastern Pennsylvania|
|304th Sanitary Train||Eastern Pennsylvania|
|304th Annnunition Train||Maryland and Eastern Pennsylvania|
|304th Field Signal Battalion||Area at large|
|304th Trench Mortar Battery||Philadelphia and vicinity|
|79th Military Police||Eastern Pennsylvania|
- Page 138: The long training period at Camp Meade was featured by one big event when, on April 6, 1918, the first anniversary of America's entry into the war, the Division hiked to Baltimore and held a grand review in that city before President Wilson. The showing of the Division was remarkable, especially in view of the fact that many of the men had quit civilian life not more than a month before. Within three months after the review at Baltimore the Division was considered ready for overseas. The great July movement of troops was under way, a move ment which eclipsed all world records in transportation overseas, and the 79th was dispatched as one of the first to start for France in that period. On June 30th, General Kuhn and his staff sailed from New York on the U. S. S. Calamares. On July 6th the various organizations began to leave Camp Meade by troop train. On July 8th the Leviathan (formerly the Hamburg-American liner Vateriana*) sailed from Hoboken with the Division Headquarters, Headquarters Troop, 310th Machine Gun Battalion, 157th Infantry Brigade complete (313th and 314th Infantry and 311th Machine Gun Battalion), and the 304th Field Signal Battalion . more than 12,000 men. The balance of the Division . artillery brigade excepted .sailed in a convoy of five transports on July 9th. These vessels, the Agamemnon, America, La France, Mt. Vernon and Orizaba, carried the 158th Infantry Brigade complete (315th and 316th Infantry, and 312th Machine Gun Battalion), the 304th Engineers, and the Supply, Sanitary and Divisional trains. The 154th Artillery Brigade and the Ammunition Train sailed from Philadelphia on July 14th, the transports carrying them being the Haverford, North Land, Saxonia, Mesaba, Nevasa and Morvada.
- Page 140: On the night of September 25th, the 79th began preparations for the offensive.
The 157th Brigade, commanded by Brigadier General William J. Nicholson, and consisting of the 313th Infantry (Colonel Claude B. Sweezy)
and the 311th Infan try (Colonel William M. Oury), had taken over the front line, with the 158th Brigade in support. The 158th Brigade consisted of the 315th Infantry (Colonel Alden C. Knowles), and the 316th Infantry (Colonel Oscar J. Charles). The Division was formed for an attack on a brigade front, the 313th on the left and the 314th on the right. Behind the 313th lay the 316th, and behind the 314th the 315th. Each regiment was prepared to attack with two battalions, holding one battalion in brigade reserve. The lessons at Meade and Prauthoy were about to be demonstrated in cold reality.
- Page 141: Getting away at 5:30 o'clock, the 313th and 314th Infantry met their first setbacks when they reached the barbed wire entanglement in front of the deserted German front line trenches and found that the wire-cutters had partially failed to clear the path. For twenty-five minutes the advance was held up until the wire was snipped away. Striking forward again, the 313th, on the left, immediately ran into the Bois de Malancourt, where it met its first serious resistance. Yard after yard was gained but with severe losses. Every tree seemed to harbor a sniper, every clump of bushes a machine gun nest. Occasionally there were open spaces, but these were swept by enfilading fire and proved veritable death traps. Casualties among officers and men ran high. By the time the regiment had gained the western end of the Bois de Cuisy, where it was necessary to halt and re form, the losses had reached serious proportions. Major Benjamin Franklin Pepper, of the 2d Battalion, was killed by a sniper's bullet. Major Langley, of the 3d Battalion, was seriously wounded. Officers and men of the shock companies in the advance were dropping everywhere. It was in this first stage that Captain Harry Ingersoll of H Company; Lieutenant F. Stuart Patterson, Battalion Adjutant; and Lieutenant Thomas D. Vandiver, of B Company, were killed outright or mortally wounded. In the meanwhile, on the right, the 314th had swept forward after the barbed wire was cut and met little resistance in the first rush, engulfing the ruined hamlet of Harcourt and finally emerging upon another ruined town, Malancourt, lying well within the original enemy territory. Terrific enfilading fire swept this open area. Despite the resistance, the 314th kept advancing, its progress slowing up consider ably, however. Supreme acts of heroism developed on all sides as the squads rushed or surrounded machine gun nests. The deaths of Sergeant Michael C. Ventura and Sergeant Peter Strucel, and the achievements of Sergeant Grant U. Cole, Sergeant Joseph Cabla, Corporal James A. Larson, and Private CHITord M. Seiders, are incidents of the manner in which the stalking was done. Late after noon at last found the 314th abreast of the position of the 313th Infantry, with Montfaucon in plain view beyond.
- Page 143: On the morning of September 27th, General Kuhn, dissatisfied with the dis position of the units of the 158th Brigade, relieved the Brigade Commander and created a provisional brigade of the 314th and 315th Infantry, under Colonel Oury. of the 314th. General Nicholson, of the 157th Brigade, thus found his command consisting of the 313th and 316th Infantry. With the 313th and 314th reformed during the night, the advance was resumed on the 27th, the latter unit getting off at 4 a.m. and the former at 7 a.m. Between 7 and 11 o'clock that morning the 313th fought a dogged, determined fight up the hill toward Mont faucon. Swept by machine gun lire and heavies, the regiment kept on. Aided by effective fire from one company of the 311th Machine Gun Battalion, the 2d Bat talion of the 313th reached the outskirts of the town on the hill at 11 o'clock, and at 11:55 completed its occupation. The historic message, sent back to Divisional Headquarters by Colonel Sweezy, gave the news as follows: Took town of MONTFAUCON 11h 55, after considerable fighting in town. Many snipers left behind. Town shelled to slight extent after our occupation. Am moving on to Corps ob jective and hope to reach it by 16 h(4 p.m.) From 4 a.m. onward the 314th had been in deadly lighting on the right, keep ing abreast of the 313th's advance and topping the rises of the Fayal Farm at about the same time its companion unit was sweeping into Montfaucon. Both regiments suffered heavily. In the 314th, Captain Clarence P. Freeman, of M Company, and Lieutenant Clifford McK. Alexander, of L Company, were killed, while the lost among the ranks had been so heavy as to interfere with further successful advance. Nevertheless, both regiments tried to extend their operations. The 313th was heavily shelled from the Bois de Beuge to the northwest and finally, toward even ing was compelled to dig in a few hundred meters north of Montfaucon; while the 314th, after repeated attempts during the afternoon to take Nantallois, a hamlet about three kilometers north of the town on the hill, finally dug in about a half kilometer south of its objective.
- Page 144: In the meanwhile, on the right, the 314th had swept forward after the barlied wire was cut and met little resistance in the first rush, engulfing the ruined hamlet
of Harcourt and finally emerging upon another ruined town, Malancourt, lying well within the original enemy territory. Terrific enfilading fire swept this open aiea. Despite the resistance, the 314th kept advancing, its progress slowing up considerably, however. Supreme acts of heroism developed on all sides as the squads
rushed or surrounded machine gun nests. The deaths of Sergeant Michael C. Ventura and Sergeant Peter Strucel, and the achievements of Sergeant ( irant U.
Cole, Sergeant Joseph Cabla, Corporal James A. Larson, and Private Clifford M.
Seiders, are incidents of the manner in which the stalking was done. Late after- noon at last found the 31 1th abreast of the position of the 313th Infantry, with Montfaucon in jjlaiii view beyond.
- Pages 146-147: The toll in officers and men among all four regiments had been more severe than on any other day. In the 313th, Lieutenant Charles G. Reilly, of D Company, was killed; Lieutenant William P. McGoohan, of A Company, mortally wounded: Captain David Rupp, of C Company, killed; Lieutenant David M. Rupp, of G Company, killed; and Lieutenant William J. Watters, of A Company, killed. In the 314th, Lieutenant Ballard C. Linch, of the Sanitary Detachment, had been killed. In the 315th, the killed or mortally wounded were Lieutenant George N. Althouse, of H Company; Lieutenant Benjamin Bullock, 3d Battalion Adjutant; Lieutenant James F. Delaney; Captain Joseph Gray Duncan, Jr., of the Machine Gun Company; Lieutenant Herman D. Partson, of Company G; and Lieutenant William A. Sheehan, of Company F. The killed or mortally wounded in the 316th were Lieutenant Joseph C. Fitzharris, Company K; Captain Benjamin H. Hewitt, Company F; Lieutenant Daniel S. Keller, Regimental Staff; Captain Allen W. Lukens, Company G; and Lieutenant Ivan L. Lautenbacher, Supply Company.
That day back abreast of Montfaucon, where on the Fayal Farm Field Hos pitals Nos. 315 and 316 had established themselves, the Huns deliberately shelled the area. There were between 500 and 600 wounded men under treatment there when the enemy shelling began. Three tents were struck and twenty-one men killed, including a German captain and German private, captives who were being treated for wounds. The men of the two hospitals carried those most severely injured back to safety while the "walking cases" limped and staggered along, leaning on the shoulders of burdened orderlies, until the area was cleared without further casualties. Before dawn on the morning of September 30th an order from the 5th Corps announced that the 79th would be relieved by the 3d Division during the day. As a result it was decided to make no further advance but hold present positions
until relief arrived. During the entire day the enfilading fire from the Meuse to the eastward and northwestward from the region of Cierges and Romagne beat in upon the Division, causing many casualties, and also inflicting severe losses among the units of the 3d Division which began to reach the front shortly before 11 o'clock. Under this fire the 314th Infantry lost two officers killed, Major Alfred Reginald Allen and Lieutenant E. Thorp VanDusen, of the Machine Gun Company, and had one mortally wounded, Lieutenant Matthew F. Olstein, of the Sanitary Detach ment. The relief went on steadily under the greatest difficulties, and by 6 p.m. the last unit of the Division, save two companies of the 311th Machine Gun Battalion, which were not relieved until the following day, had fallen back to Montfaucon for a much needed rest. The 301th Engineers, however, after reaching the vicinity of Malancourt, were recalled and attached to the 3d Division, continuing the road work until October 8th, when they were permitted to march from the area.
- Page 148: In La Grande Montagne the 79th relieved the 29th and part of the 26th, which had just completed the conquest of Belleu Woods (not those of Chateau- Thierry fame). The 79th was now a part of the 17th French Corps, and its activ ities henceforth were interwoven with those of the French. The new divisional front covered a width of 7.3 kilometers in the form of a quadrant, with the left flank facing north and the right flank facing east. Back at Troyon the 157th and 158th Brigades had been reformed, Colonel Oury returning to the command of the 314th Infantry and Brigadier General Evan M. Johnson assuming control of the 158th Brigade. The 316th Infantry was at that time under command of Colonel George Williams, the 313th under Colonel William J. Rogers, and the 301th Engineers under Colonel J. Frank Barber, the other units remaining under the same leadership as at Montfaucon. Every organization was back at war strength, ample replacements having been received and drilled during the stay in the Troyon sector.
- Pages 149-151: On the morning of November 8th the Germans unleashed a terrific rain of fire along the entire front.
They seemed to be pouring everything in the shell line upon the 79th.
Hour after hour it continued, until in the afternoon it slackened and finally died out completely. The front grew oppressively silent. The sus pense was terrific, officers and men not knowing whether an assault was coming or whether the Germans were in retreat.
Finally aerial observers brought in word that the Huns were indeed falling back toward Damvillers. The French Corps Commander, to reduce the width of the 79th's front,
issued instructions to General Kuhn on that day with the result that the 314th took over the entire divisional front for a short space of time while the 3 15th Infantry, the left element of the 158th Brigade, was compelled to side-step to the south.
The effect of the maneuver was to change the 79th's front slightly, the line now being from east of Etraye to east of Moirey, Etraye being some distance south of Ecurey and Moirey a short distance below Crepion.
The 315th marched four and one-half kilometers at night through underbrush and woods, and reached its assigned position in time to attack on November 9th. On the morning of November 9th, the Division was in position with the 314th on the line and the 313th in support on the right of the sector, and the 315th behind the line on the left of the sector, with the 316th coming up in support.
As it was impossible to deploy the 315th into line on the then narrow front, the attack at dawn developed entirely upon the 314th Infantry. This unit, advancing at 6 a.m. took Crepion at 8.20, and Wavrille, Gibercy, Etraye and Moirey shortly after wards.
On the left the 314th ran up against such heavy fire from Hill 356 and the C6te de Morimont that it was brought to a halt, but on the right it progressed to the crest of Hill 328 by nightfall. In the meanwhile a battalion of the 315th relieved the left battalion of the 314th in front of the Cote de Morimont, and both
brigades were again facing the enemy. Major Ward W. Pierson, of the 315th, was killed that day while effecting the relief. The plans of attack were changed for November 10th. Because of the natural strength of the Cote d'Orne and Cote de Morimont, facing the 315th Infantry, it was decided to flank them from the south and southeast, this necessitating a di rect attack by the 157th Brigade and a feint against the strong hills by the 158th. At 6 a.m. the 314th attacked on the right, completing the reduction of Hill 328, passing through Chaumont-devant-Damvillers and, after dusk, capturing Hill 319. In the meanwhile the 315th had fought its way partly up the slope of Cote d'Orne and dug in for the night. The last officer of the Division killed in action died that day, Captain Frank F. Battles, of the Machine Gun Company, 314th Infantry. Beginning at 9:30 a.m. on November llth the attack was pushed along the entire front. The 314th moved forward against the Cote de Romagne, with a battalion of the 313th also pressing forward for the same objective and town of Azannes. At the same time another battalion of the 313th occupied the town of Ville-devant-Chaumont, and the 315th executed a flanking attack on the Cote d'Orne, one company (D) pushing up the slope and capturing a 9-inch German can non. Armistice hour found the Division well on its way to its objectives. Nor had the other divisional units aside from the infantry been idle. The 304th En gineers had been bridge and road building between Vaucherauville, the Divisional Headqu arters, and the front line; the supply train had been under constant shell fire for the whole eleven days since taking over the sector, and even the 304th Ammunition Train had managed to get into the offensive. The horse battalion had been with the Division at Montfaucon, but the motor battalion did not get away from the artillery brigade until just before the final offensive. It had reached the sector on November 3d, and while C, D and F Companies had, through lack of equipment, been forced to turn engineers and work with the road and bridge builders, Companies A, B, E and G had served ammunition constantly from November 3d to Armistice Day and hour.
The total depth of the 79th Division advance in the La Grande Montagne sector had been 9H kilometers. It had taken 192 prisoners and material in great abundance. Its casualties for the offensive totalled sixty-four officers and 2,636 men, divided as follows; Officers: Killed, 10; wounded, 39; gassed, 13; missing in action, 2. Men: Killed, 433; wounded 1,447; gassed, 275; missing, including captured, 461. To compare the conclusions with those given after Montfaucon, the following is taken from the Report of Operations: The Division fought with much more skill, as a result of the first experience at Montfaucon. The energies of combat units were husbanded and not dissipated so rapidly as on the first offen sive. Troops were kept well in hand, and straggling was kept at a gratifying low limit. After eight days of severe combat, the 158th Brigade, although somewhat depleted, was still capable of further effort, while the 157th Brigade, after three days' offensive, was still relatively fresh, and the Division as a whole could have maintained considerable driving power for a number of days.
The Armistice Period and Afterwards From November llth to December 26th, the 79th remained on the battle front, taking over a sector from Damvillers on the north to Fresnes-en-Woevre (the northern point of the old Troyon sector) on the south. They kept up patrol
and police duty during that month and a half. On December 10th, headquarters of the 314th Infantry, Headquarters Company and one battalion proceeded to the area around Montmedy, Stenay and Virton (Belgium) for the purpose of guarding property, listing material and maintaining order. On February 1st, this detach ment rejoined the Division in the Souilly area.
- Page 152: The movement of the 79th Division to the embarkation area began on April 19th, the artillery going to St. Nazaire and the infantry to the vicinity of Nantes and Cholet. On May 13th the 314th Infantry, the 304th Field Signal Battalion and the 154th Artillery Brigade Headquarters, the first units to start for home, sailed from France on the Princess Matoika, and from then on until the end of the month the various units cleared either Nantes or St. Nazaire. The Princess Matoi- ka arrived at Hoboken on May 26th at the same time the transport Tiger brought the 310th Field Artillery into New York and the transport Virginian landed the 312th Field Artillery and 311th Machine Gun Battalion at Newport News, Va. On May 28th, transport Edward Luckenbach arrived at Brooklyn with the 311th Field Artillery and 312th Machine Gun Battalion. On May 29th the transport Kroonland docked at New York with Division Headquarters, 301th Engineers, Headquarters Troop, Train Headquarters, and a part of the 3d Battalion 316th Infantry. The same day the transport Texan sailed up the Delaware to Philadelphia with the balance of the 316th Infantry. The next day, May 30th, the transport Santa Rosa brought all but two companies of "Philadelphia's Own," 315th Infantry, into their home port, and on May 31st the transport Dakotan also arrived at Philadelphia with the 304th Supply Train, 79th Military Police, a de tachment of the 310th Field Artillery and Companies L and M, 315th Infantry. In the meanwhile the transport Pastores had taken the 313th Infantry to Newport News, so that on June 1st the final units of the Division reached America, they being the Horse Battalion of the 304th Ammunition Train and the 304th Sanitary Train complete. The men who arrived at Hoboken and Philadelphia were sent to Camp Dix, New Jersey, for demobilization, and those who arrived at Newport News were demobilized at Camp Meade and, before the middle of June, 1919, the 79th Div ision had ceased to exist save in history.
- Page 187: Seventy-nine members of the Troop served overseas and fifty took part in engagements. Three Troopers fell in action and three others died in active service; seven were wounded. Those who lost their lives in the war were:
Phinehas P. Chrystie, Captain, 312th Field Artillery
Norton Downs, Jr., First Lieutenant, Air Service
Thomas Graham Hirst, First Lieutenant, 151st Field Artillery
Edward Ingersoll, Captain, Air Service
Harry Ingersoll, Captain, 313th Infantry
Frank F. Battles, Captain, 314th Infantry